Between 1838 and 1917, 239,000 Indians were brought as “indentured labourers” for the sugar plantations of Guyana – and a like number to the West Indies. The question arises as to why these persons left their country when their custom forbade “crossing the “Black Waters” (Kala Pani)”. The short answer is structurally, it was ultimately a matter of life and death.While indentured labour might be seen as a transitory passage of human labour from chattel slavery to the so called “free labour” of today, the conditions that herded Indians into that option were man made. The sugar planters had no faith free Africans would sell their labour at a rate to make sugar profitable. They therefore actively sought a new supply that would guarantee such cheap labour on demand. But where would such rates that could not attract freed slaves be a “pull factor” for indentureship? The answer was British India.The story begins in 1757 when the troops of the British East India Company captured Bengal from the Moguls and completed their inexorable conquest of the legendarily rich India within 50 years. Less than a decade later – between 1768 and 1771 from Bengal andPhotograph of a South India family during the 1878 famine by W W Hooper, a Colonel in the British Armyeastern Bihar (from where most Guyanese immigrants originated) – more than 10 million persons: one third of the population – died from a “famine”. Why? Two reasons. Firstly, the farmers that supplied the bulk of the population with foodstuffs were forced by the British into producing cash crops for export – even while they were forced to pay onerous taxes at the threat of death and violence.We quote the words of then British Governor, Warren Hastings who boasted to the home office: “Notwithstanding the loss of at least one-third of the inhabitants of the province, and the consequent decrease of the cultivation, the nett collections of the year 1771 exceeded even those of I768… It was naturally to be expected that the diminution of the revenue should have kept an equal pace with the other consequences of so great a calamity. That it did not was owing to its being violently kept up to its former standard.”The cash crops the farmers were forced to grow included cotton, opium, indigo and, as described above, this was simply to keep paying off the extortionate demands of the British who exported rice and wheat even during the famines. Millions were also thrown out of work when the British forbade Indian weavers from producing cotton yarn and the cotton fabrics that had enthralled Europe. Henceforth, only cotton woven by British looms could be sold in India! Where were the weavers to get the money to buy food much less clothes? Incidentally, Britain became the largest drug dealers up to the present where the opium – up to 800 tons annually – were shipped to China so that the British could buy Chinese tea.Between the Bengal famine of 1768 and the end of Indentureship in 1917, conservatively, over 54 million Indians perished from famine. In the book Late Victorian Holocausts (2001) Mike Davis describes how Viceroy Lord Lytton, insisted that wheat be exported to England. In 1877 and 1878, at the height of the famine when 10.3 million persons perished, grain merchants exported a record 800,000 tons of wheat and 1.9 million tons of rice. As the peasants began to starve, officials were ordered “to discourage relief works in every possible way”.And this is why the upsurge of indentured Indians correlated with the British-induced famines.
Dear Editor,It is sad to see what is happening to our education system here in Guyana. I read with disgust the situation with the sexual assault of a student by a teacher of Tagore Memorial Secondary School as reported by News Room on Facebook on the historic celebration of World Teachers’ Day on October 5.But, I do not agree with the judgment made by the Welfare Officer, Miss Merlyn Alphonso on Facebook, who represents the Education Ministry. The matter is already before the Court and I don’t see why this Welfare Officer has to join in with other teachers of Tagore to shame and ridicule the Science teacher.Mr Vishal Narine is the best Science teacher in the Corentyne and he received the prestigious Teachers’ Award at National Cultural Centre during the 50th Independence Celebration.Tagore Memorial Secondary has a very good Head Teacher and the School Board works well with the school. They boost the performance of the school. I don’t know why persons on Facebook are trying to attack them.The Ministry practices double standard and they pick stories to deal with and this looks like racism. The Head Teacher of Skeldon Primary School takes all the school funds and she always asks parents, children and the business people for money. The canteen vendor sells expired things and any hour of the day about 5-6 teachers can be seen relaxing on the front landing.Are there extra teachers in the school? All the teachers from the school keep extra lessons at school, and each child has to pay the $500 for the lessons Saturday morning or else licks and embarrassment Monday. Much of the classroom work is done at the lessons, so who cannot afford lose out.Yours sincerely,Mr Mohanlall
– Advertisement –
We’ve scoured the internet for the creepiest mascots out there, and we’re pretty sure you wouldn’t want to run into any of these on a dark night.Our countdown includes the one-eyed blobs that graced the 2012 London Olympic games, as well as a host of horrifying mascots from across the globe.Subscribe to the talkSPORT YouTube channel for more great sport videos and let us know if we’ve missed any out by leaving a comment below.
Stewart Downing is confident West Ham can secure a top ten finish to the Premier League season if the team continue their brilliant early form into the rest of the campaign.The Hammers are up to seventh place after a 2-0 victory over Queens Park Rangers at Upton Park, a result which leaves Harry Redknapp’s below-par side rock bottom of the table.Downing has played a major part in the east London side’s decent start, starring in big wins over Liverpool and Crystal Palace, and he believes a place in the top half of the table could be there for the taking.“If we consistently perform like we did against Liverpool [a 3-1 home victory] and we did today, then we have a hell of a chance of being inside the top ten, if not further up,” said the former Reds man.“But we have to consistently do that. We let ourselves slip against Manchester United [last weekend’s 2-1 defeat at Old Trafford], but if we put a run together, we have got a good chance.“The good thing is we have a good squad – we have injuries to come back. And I think this international break has probably come at a good time for us.” 1 West Ham winger Stewart Downing celebrates with Hammers team-mates
SCOLÁIREACHTAÍ PRINTÍSEACHTA AN TÚDARÁS AR FÁIL ANOISTá sé curtha in iúl ag an Seanadóir Brian Ó Domhnaill gó bhfuil Údarás na Gaeltachta ag tairiscint scoláireachtaí Printíseachta gur fiú nios mó na €2,000 an ceann iad d’iarrathóirí le cáilíocht mar cheardaí a bhaint amach.Dúirt an Seanadóir Ó Domhnaill; “ Ma tá spéis ag aon duine a bheith san iomaíocht do na scoláireachtaí seo, ba choir, iarrataid a dheanamh (ar foirm iarratas sonrach) chuig an Rannóg Oiliúna & Oideachais, Údarás na Gaeltachta , Na Forbacha, Co. Na Gaillimhe roime an 16/03/2012. Notá- Tá na foirmeacha iarratas ar fáil ar mó suíomh idirlíon www.brianodomhnaill.ieÓ Domhnaill confirms Údarás Apprenticeship places availableDonegal Senator Brian Ó Domhnaill has confirmed that Údaras na Gaeltachta are offering a number of apprenticeship places, worth €2,000 each to applicants who may wish to obtain a trade qualification.“Anyone interested in applying should do so by Friday March 16th next by sending a completed application form to An Rannóg Oiliúna & Oideachais, Údarás na Gaeltachta , Na Forbacha, Co. Na Gaillimhe. Application forms are available from Údarás na Gaeltachta or on my website.” ENDSSCOLÁIREACHTAÍ PRINTÍSEACHTA AN TÚDARÁS AR FÁIL ANOIS was last modified: February 8th, 2012 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:SCOLÁIREACHTAÍ PRINTÍSEACHTA AN TÚDARÁS AR FÁIL ANOIS
RENTS in towns in the county are jumping at a huge rate, new figures released today show.A three-bed semi-detached house is up 10.3 per cent in Donegal town to €470 per month.A similar home in Letterkenny rose by 12 per cent to €530 per month. The rise is part of a national pattern showing provincial town rent rises jumping across the country.The Residential Tenancies Board (RTB) record the actual rents paid as opposed to those advertised. RENTS IN DONEGAL TOWN AND LETTERKENNY SHOW HUGE RISE was last modified: June 14th, 2016 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:Donegal Townletterkennyrent rises
huge blow 2 Antonio Valencia returned against Newcastle Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? RANKED ADVICE Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card MONEY REVEALED Every time Ally McCoist lost it on air in 2019, including funny XI reactions The 33-year-old fell out with previous manager Jose Mourinho earlier in the season after he liked an Instagram post calling for the under-pressure manager to be sacked.He issued a public apology to Mourinho in person during a meeting at United’s training ground, but he was frozen out for almost two months.In early December, Valencia was linked with a move to Premier League side West Ham who are on the look out to replace Pablo Zabaleta who could retire at the end of the campaign.Interim boss Ole Gunnar Solskjaer returned him to the side with his first Premier League start since September in Wednesday’s 2-0 win at Newcastle. REVEALED Latest Football News Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade BEST OF When Solskjaer took over last month he talked up Valencia and his role within the team.“Antonio is the captain when fit,” Solskjaer said.“He’s going through a couple of tough sessions now to get him ready for the busy period, there are not many more better right backs going forward so you’ll see him wearing his band.”Valencia is United’s longest-serving player, making 338 appearances since joining from Wigan for £16million in 2009. 2 Forbes list reveals how much Mayweather, Ronaldo and Messi earned this decade no dice Inter are considering a move for Manchester United captain Antonio Valencia, whose contract expires in the summer.The Italian giants will turn to the Ecuadorian if they lose Joao Miranda in the January transfer window, according to Sky in Italy. Ronaldo warned Lukaku how hard scoring goals in Serie A would be before Inter move Valencia fell out with former manager Jose Mourinho Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury
Which teams do the best on Boxing Day in the Premier League era? MONEY Son ban confirmed as Tottenham fail with appeal to overturn red card REVEALED Where Ancelotti ranks with every Premier League boss for trophies won RANKED 1 REVEALED Top nine Premier League free transfers of the decade Oxlade-Chamberlain suffers another setback as Klopp confirms serious injury no dice Manuel Pellegrini will now prepare his side to face Premier League leaders Liverpool on Monday Every time Ally McCoist lost it on air in 2019, including funny XI reactions ADVICE Ronaldo warned Lukaku how hard scoring goals in Serie A would be before Inter move huge blow FOOTBALL LATEST ON TALKSPORT.COM BEST OF On paper, it appears West Ham could be in for even more misery when they welcome Jurgen Klopp’s men to east London.But Redknapp has urged the team to get their frustrated fans back on side with a win against the high-flying Reds. Harry Redknapp has challenged West Ham to make amends for their ‘dreadful’ recent form by beating Liverpool in Monday night’s Premier League clash.The abject Hammers will host the league leaders at the London Stadium hoping to claim an unlikely victory after a miserable run of results away from home.Manuel Pellegrini’s side suffered an embarrassing FA Cup exit at the hands of League One AFC Wimbeldon last weekend and followed that up with a 3-0 defeat to Wolves in the league the following Tuesday. Forbes list reveals how much Mayweather, Ronaldo and Messi earned this decade Speaking on the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast, the former Hammers manager said: “West Ham’s last few games have been really disappointing.“I saw the game at Bournemouth [a 2-0 away defeat] and I thought they were poor, it was an awful result against Wimbledon and then again against Wolves.“They’ve conceded nine goals in the last three away games, so they really do need to get the fans back on side again with a good performance.“They could well do that at home to Liverpool.”
Sheyi Ojo scored a debut goal as Rangers thrashed St Joseph’s 4-0 in their Europa League opener.Steven Gerrard handed debuts to Ojo and Jordan Jones who helped bring a healthy advantage back to Ibrox.Ryan Jack opened the scoring at the start of the second-half with a smart finish.Connor Goldson: Rangers won 4-0.Rangers scored another when on-loan Liverpool midfielder Ojo hit a curling shot into the back of the net. The Glasgow outfit then went three ahead from a Borna Barisic free-kick with Connor Goldson making sure from the follow-up.Alfredo Morelos, who started the game as a substitute, came off the bench to complete the rout with a header.